Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. 2 Tim. 2:15

King James AV1611


Romans was taught by Dr. James Modlish



Outline of the Chapter:

I. Paul's Great Sorrow (9:1-3)

A. Hurt is real

[1]. Conscience supports it

[2]. The Holy Spirit confirms it

B. Hurt is deep and lasting
[1]. Continual
[2]. Sacrificial

II. Israel's Great Failure (9:4,5)

A. Their past advantages

[1]. Adoption

[2]. Glory

[3]. Covenants

[4]. Law

[5]. Service of God

[6]. Promises

[7]. The patriarchs

B. The present opportunity, the Messiah

III. God's Great Faithfulness (9:6-18)

A. The principles of election

[1]. Not based on natural advantages

    (a). Not all descendants of Jacob (Israel)

    (b). Not all descendants of Abraham

[2]. Always based on a promise
    (a). Ishmael excluded - son of the flesh
    (b). Isaac chosen - came by promise

[3]. Never based on human accomplishment
    (a). Jacob & Esau had the same father, neither could exercise his will in the womb.
    (b). Neither babe had the opportunity to work

B. Election is God exercising his prerogatives
[1]. Declared to Moses
[2]. Demonstrated in Pharaoh
[3]. Described by Paul

IV. Man's Objections Answered (9:19-29)

A. Objection stated: God makes us sin and then condemns us for it.

B. Objection answered:
[1]. Who are we to question God?
[2]. Consider God's motives
    (a). His attributes are shown through his dealings with men in blessing or wrath.
    (b). The Gentiles are also chosen, Hosea and Isaiah predicted it.


[1]. Ignorant and sinful Gentiles made righteous through faith.

[2]. Zealous and privileged Jews failed in their work.

[3]. God's elect are those who have not stumbled at the stumblingstone but have accepted him.

Chapter Nine is one of the foundation stones of the Hyper Calvinistic system of theology. Along with (Eph. 1:4,5) and other scattered Scriptures, a whole intellectual system of "Sovereign Grace" is formed, teaching that God in eternity ordained and predestined the elect to be saved.

Let us note these things before we begin the verse by verse commentary:

[1]. The subject matter of Romans 9 is a comparison of Gospel privileges for Israel and the Gentiles, not salvation.

[2]. Esau and Pharaoh (v 13, 17) are likened unbelieving Israel.

[3]. Unbelieving Israel deliberately rejected Christ in the face of signs (Acts 2:22,23). You will observe that individual responsibility is so great in the verse that mentions foreknowledge (2:23) that the action is justly called murder (Acts 3:15; 7:52) and deserves capital punishment.

[4]. The word "predestination" does not occur in Romans 9.

[5]. Election refers to a temporal act never in an eternal setting. (Isa. 42:1; 45:4; 65:9,22; Mt. 24:22,24,31; Rom. 8:33; Col. 3:12; 1 Tim. 5:21; 2 Tim. 2:10; Tit. 1:1)

At the end of the verse by verse commentary, a whole section will be given to the discussion of the Five Point Calvinistic System represented by the letters T U L I P.




9:1 "Conscience" -

[1]. convicted conscience, (Jn. 8:9)

[2]. purged, (Heb. 9:14)

[3]. good, (Acts 23:1)

[4]. pure, (1 Tim. 3:9)

[5]. weak, (1 Cor. 8:12)

[6]. evil, (Heb. 10:22)

[7]. seared, (1 Tim. 4:2)

A saved man not only has the conviction of his moral conscience but he carries the conviction of the Holy Spirit.

9:2 The Christian's life is an apparent host of contradictions, (2 Cor. 6:7-10; 2 Cor. 4:8-10).

9:3 Note: "I could wish...."

"accursed" - Moses, (Ex. 32:32; Gal. 3:13), Jesus

"my kinsman" - (Ex. 4:22; Isa. 45:4)

9:4 Note distinction between Israelites according to the flesh and verse 6, Rom. 2:28,29; Rom. 11:26.

"the adoption" - national adoption of Israel, (Ex. 4:22; Isa. 45:4).

"the glory" - (1 Sam. 4:21)

"the service of God" - Levitical priesthood

"the promises" - (Heb. 6:12; 11:13)

9:5 "concerning the flesh" - (Jn. 1:14; Gal. 4:4; 1 Tim. 3:16; Matt. 1:23-25; 1 Jn. 5:20). It will be worth your while to see the "New" Bibles' treatment of this verse.

9:6 (Rom. 2:28,29). There are physical Jews, according to the flesh (9:3) and there are spiritual Jews (Gal. 6:16; 1 Pet. 2:10).

9:7 Abraham has two seeds, a physical seed through human reproduction and a spiritual seed by the righteousness imputed by faith, (Rom. 4:1-5).

"In Isaac" - (Gen. 21:12; Heb. 11:18; Gal. 3:29) Isaac was the child of promise (Gen. 18:10), rather than the child of the flesh, Ishmael.

9:8 (Rom. 8:9; 9:26; Gal. 3:26, 29; Jn. 1:12)

"the children of promise" - (Jn. 8:33-44; Rom. 4:16; Gal. 4:28)

9:9 Quoted from (Gen. 18:10)

9:10 "Rebecca...conceived" - (Gen. 25:21)

9:11 Note that verse eleven is in parenthesis. Read ten then twelve also to maintain continuity of thought.

Election is always found in a temporal setting. Notice salvation is not the topic of discussion and also note that the "decrees of God" in (verses 12 and 13), happen in time. Verse 12 was said when she conceived ... (verse 10, and 13) is a quote from (Mal. 1:2,3) again in time. No eternal election is found in the passage.

9:12 (Gen. 25:23)

9:13 (Mal. 1:2,3) This is said many years after both Jacob and Esau are dead and buried.

9:15,16 This is the second most used passage by the Calvinist in the Bible. The Calvinist reads it this way:

"For he saith unto Moses, I will put into heaven those whom I've predestinated to go to heaven and I will elect to heaven those who the blood pays for, so it is not the sinner by an act of the will that receives Jesus Christ, nor the man that works, but by the sovereignty of God that elects people without the exercise of their own free will."

Note carefully the context, (vs. 11, 12, 13) Old Testament. No one in the Old Testament is "in Christ". The subject is mercy and compassion, not salvation. A man cannot force God, by his will or works to have mercy on him. The practical application would be: if you are going to receive mercy, you. will receive it on God's terms not your own, you can't will it or work it any other way.

Look at (Rom. 11:30,31,32) where the context is New Testament salvation, not Old Testament dealings with Pharaoh.

Verse 15 is quoted from (Ex. 33:19 not Ex. 9:16!) (Jn. 1:13; Phil. 2:13)

9:17 Pharaoh was raised up to show God's power, not his mercy.

"the scripture saith" - there was not scripture in (Ex. 9. See Gal. 3:8). The scripture is equated with the voice of God, Moses and Aaron.

9:18 God does not harden Pharaoh's heart until Pharaoh has already rejected what God said. (See Ex 3:19) -foreknowledge, the Lord had not done anything to Pharaoh at this time, "I am sure". (Ex. 5:1,2) there is no hardening as of yet; now see (Ex 7:13; 8:15; 9:12; 10:1; 11:10; 14:8), the Lord hardens his heart.

(See 1 Tim. 4:10 Jas. 2:13; Matt. 9:13; Matt. 25:31-40; Pr. 21:13,23)

9:19 Why doth he yet find fault with Pharaoh? Someone would say, his "sovereignty" compelled me! For who hath resisted... ?

We do every time we sin.

9:20 (Isa. 45:9; 29:16; 64:8; Jer. 18:1-6)

9:21 (Jer. 18:3 and following; Jer. 19:10,11). Note there are saved vessels of dishonor in II Tim. 2:20,21.

9:22 God uses man to exhibit his attributes. Animals cannot experience love, obedience, eternity, justice, integrity, honesty, etc. God has chosen to show these to and in man.

(Verses 22-24) shows us what God intends to do with his attributes. The "fitting" and "hardening" is never said to precede the person's choice based on his won free will.

9:23 "the riches of his glory" - (Eph. 1:18; 2:7; 3:8, 16; Col. 1:27; Phil. 4:19)

"afore prepared" - (Rom. 8:29; 1 Jn. 3:1,2)

9:24 "called" - see notes on calling (Rom. 8:30)

9:25 Osee=Hosea, (Hos. 2:23. 1 Pet. 2:10)

9:26 (Hos. 1:10!)

9:27 Esaias=Isaiah, (Isa. 10:22,23)

"a remnant shall be saved" - (1 Kgs. 19:10-18; Rom. 11:3-5,26; Rom. 9:6; Jn. 1:11,12)

9:28 (Isa. 28:22)

9:29 (Isa. 1:9) Lord of Sabaoth=Lord of Hosts

9:30 See (Rom. 10:2,3)

"righteousness which is of faith" - (Rom. 1:17; 4:5)

9:31 Jews will go to Hell for seeking righteousness in a set of laws just like anyone else. (Lk. 2:34)

9:32 (Rom. 3:19,20; 4:1-5)

9:33 "As it is written" - (Isa. 8:14; 28:16) See also: (1 Pet. 2:6-8; Ps. 118:22)

"shall not be ashamed" - (Rom. 1:16; 10:11; 1 Cor. 1:23)


Calvinism or Hyper-Calvinism

The catch word for the beliefs of the Hyper-Calvinists is the word T U L I P.

The basic beliefs of the Calvinist are outlined herein:

T =    Total Depravity

U =    Unconditional Election

L =    Limited Atonement

I =    Irresistible Grace

P =    Perseverance of the Saints

Names associated with these beliefs are:

Particular Baptists, Hard Shell Baptists, Primitive Baptists, Puritans

Men associated with these beliefs are:

Kuyper, Dabney, Hodge, Berkhov, Pink

  1. An hyper-calvinist is one who over-emphasizes the doctrines taught by John Calvin. (1509-1564). Calvin himself was a baby sprinkler, a-millennial and burned those who opposed him. He is sometimes called the Protestant Pope. Calvin was a Frenchman who's name in French is Jean Cauvain.
    The catchwords for the students of Calvin are: Sovereign Grace or Sovereignty of God.

  2. I. Total Depravity

    1. Associated names today:

  3. L. R. Shelton, Caldwell, Ballinger, Bullinger, C. H. Spurgeon only Baptist with large church who claimed to be a Calvinist.
    He didn't preach heavy Calvinistic doctrine, he preached like an Arminian.

    1. Since a sinner is dead in trespasses and sin he cannot receive Christ of his own will. - Strange he can reject Christ but not accept, and be accountable for his rejection.
      - An unsaved man cannot accept Jesus Christ as Saviour of his own free will, but God has to will for him, and save him and let him know about it later.
      - proof texts: (Phil. 2:13) - aimed at Christian in service not unsaved, look at context (vs. 12 Rom 1,9:16) = context in (Rom. 9) Salvation in nowhere.
      - Free will is a Bible expression, Total Depravity is a philosophical speculation.
      (Ezra 7:13,15,16) - freely choose right thing in their total depravity. (Ex. 35:5,21,29)
      (Rom. 3) depravity of mind, feet, hands, etc. The will never said to be depraved. The will is part of soul. The soul lives - Adam a living soul.
      True man can't earn salvation, man can't do any good to merit it but that's because he's outside of Christ.

  4. II. Unconditional Election

    1. (Eph. 1:4,5) Calvinistic basis - if you were chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world then your salvation was eternal and you were saved before (Gen. 1)!
      Election: New Testament refs. (Rom. 9:11; 11:5, 7, 28; 1 Thess. 1:4; 2 Pet. 1:10)
      Calvinistic reading of (Eph. 1:4,5) - That when you were in Christ before the foundation of the world God chose you.
      Bible - before the foundation of the world God chose you in Christ.
      God does not choose any man until he is in Christ.
      When were you in Christ? Salvation.
      - Election is based on foreknowledge, not unconditional. Election is based on the condition that you get into Jesus Christ.
      You were put in Christ when the Holy Spirit put you into him. (1 Cor. 12:13)
      - In Christ, In Adam, In Christ - out again?
      (1 Pet. 1:1,2) - election based on foreknowledge
      (Rom. 8:29) - predestination based on foreknowledge
      (Lk. 10:42) - (Acts 1:24; 13:17)
      Moses, Abraham, Isaac, Joshua were never in Christ, aren't in Christ, were not chosen in Christ but are called the elect in (Matt. 24:31). See: (Isa. 42:1; 45:4; 65:9,22)

  5. III. Limited Atonement - definition: Jesus Christ shed His blood for those that are elect. None shed for the non-elect. Calvin thought that if a person for which the blood had been shed went to Hell this overthrew the sovereignty of God, so it was impossible to reject if the blood was shed. Jesus died for the sins of the elect in the world: These verses are used to prove limited atonement. (Jn. 10:11; Eph. 5:25)
    When you show the Calvinist (Jn. 3:16) "world" - not really the world - Gentile elect gathered out of the world, not unsaved Gentiles, this is their interpretation.
    In other words:
    Before (Gen. 1:1) God chose the elect, having God accept Christ for you against your totally depraved will, and had Jesus shed just enough blood for those elected.
    Note: (1 Tim. 2:4,6) - context unsaved leaders. (1 Tim. 4:10, 2 Peter 2:1) the blood of Jesus bought false teachers & false prophets for which outer darkness is reserved.
    (2 Peter 3:8, 9) retort: all that should come to repentance are the elect - After all the elect couldn't go to Hell if they wanted to. What is the purpose of (2 Peter 3: 8,9)?

    1. - The Calvinistic system appeals to the philosopher, intellectual theologian, educated. - The Charismatic movement appeals to the sensual, soulish, emotional.
      - Limited Atonement is a subtle denial of the deity of Christ.

  6. The life of the flesh is in the blood. Jesus had eternal life -all powerful, no limitations, God's blood was shed.

  7. IV. Irresistible Grace - definition: the grace of God comes upon the elect and plants the new seed and quickens him against his will and once this happens he repents and believes.

    1. - Basis: Calvin thought that only the elect could repent. God grants repentance only to the elect. Not enough grace to accept, but enough enough to resist.
      - only the elect can repent?
      (Matt. 11:21) - they didn't, they weren't elect but could have repented - are the elect in Hell?
      (Matt. 23:37) - "ye would not"!

  8. V. Predestination - applied to the act of salvation is wrong.

    1. Predestination - 2 occurrences neither refer to salvation: (Eph. 1:11 Rom. 8:29). (Eph. 1:5) - predestined to adoption after reception of Christ.
      (Rom. 8:29) - refers to conformed to image of Christ after the reception of Christ.
      (John 1:12,13)
      Moses was saved without adoption
      Noah was saved without regeneration
      David was saved without predestination

  9. Problems that Calvinism Causes:

    1. [1]. It discourages sinners from accepting not knowing if they are elect.
      [2]. It discourages the soul winner from accepting the responsibility from being a failure. (Acts 13:48) - See (Rom 2:6-8) dispensation of conscience: Noah -Christ - Gentiles
      - (Jn. 6:44) answered with (Jn. 12:32)

  10. No Calvinist will preach on:
    (1 Cor. 4:15; Matt. 23:37; 1 Cor. 9:22; 2 Peter 2:1; Hebrews 10:29)

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