Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. 2 Tim. 2:15

King James AV1611


Romans was taught by Dr. James Modlish



Outline of the Chapter:

I. The Circle of Paul's Friends: Greetings to brothers and sisters in Rome (1-16)

A. Phebe - bearer of the letter (1,2)

B. Priscilla and Aquila - husband and wife team (3,4)
C. Epaenetus and Mary - two beloved friends (5116)
D. Relatives and close friends (7-10)
E. Some Christians and non-Christians? (10,11)
F. Three beloved ladies (12)
G. Rufus (13)
H. Some Greeks (14)
I. Anyone he might have forgotten (15)

II. Warning against those who would cause division from within (17-20)

A. They create factions through doctrinal controversy

B. Their motives - selfishness, pride, greed
C. Their methods - slick tongued
D. How to handle them
[1]. Avoid them.
[2]. Ignore their teachings.
[3]. God will take care of them.

III. Greetings from those with Paul (21-24)

A. His traveling companions

B. His secretary
C. His host in Corinth
D. His friend Erastus

IV. The Revelation of the mystery (25)

A. My gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ

B. It strengthens or establishes you

V. How did it come to us? (26)

A. Experienced by faith but until now not explained

B. Made known by prophetic writings
C. In response to God's command
D. To produce the obedience of faith

VI. Closing (27)




Chapter 15 ended with a typical Pauline closing, this is considered the first closing and what follows is a P.S. (Postscript). (Note 16:24 and 27) both end with "Amens."

Paul spends most of the chapter greeting those in Rome and sending regards from those he is with. The chapter does have two interesting doctrinal passages, one deals with a "wolf" amongst the sheep, and the other, Paul's revelation of the mystery of the Body of Christ, termed "my gospel."



16:1 "Phebe" - note the subscript at the end of the chapter. Phebe seems to be the messenger that brings the letter.

"Servant" - the new "Bibles" translate this "deaconess" trying to introduce to us female church officers. All the Apostles were male, the requirements for elders, bishops and deacons are male requirements.

"Cenchrea" - (Acts 18:18); subscript at the end of the chapter.

16:2 Note the statement "in the Lord" found here in verse two and also in verses (8,11, twice in 12,13 and 22).

"Succourer" - Helper.

16:3 "Priscilla and Aquila" - (See Acts 18:2,18,26; 1 Cor. 16:19; 2 Tim. 4:19).

16:4 "...laid down their own necks ... " - in other words, they "struck their necks out" for Paul. Again the KJV sets the pace for colloquialisms.

16:5 "...the church that is in their house ...the church is the people, not the building!

"...the firstfruits of Achaia..." - (1 Cor. 16:15), here you'll see some people addicted to the right thing.

16:7 Could Andronicus and Junia be additional apostles? (See Acts 14:14).

"...who were in Christ before me..." - Paul was "in Christ in (Acts 9), here are some early converts! This is the only mention of these two in the scriptures.

Just because Paul received the revelation of the Body of Christ does not mean that no one was in the Body until it was revealed. Peter could have eaten clams and pork chops in (Jn. 21) because the dietary ordinances of the Old Testament were done away with at Calvary, (Col. 2:14; Heb. 9:17).

16:10 "...approved in Christ..." - The statement is simple yet profound. Imagine having the Spirit of God record your name in God's word for eternity! (2 Cor. 5:9).

16:11 " kinsman..." - (See verse 7,13,21).

16:13 The verse could be taken two ways:

[1]. Rufus is Paul's brother.

[2]. Paul's mother and Rufus' mother, two different women, are mentioned.

"Rufus" - there is a Rufus mentioned in (Mk. 15:21) in connection with bearing the cross of Jesus. He could not be Paul's brother, this Rufus is the son of Simon of Cyrene.

16:14 A list of Greek men at Rome, businessmen? Traveling salesmen?

16:16 "...holy kiss ... " - (1 Cor. 16:20; 2 Cor. 13:12; 1 Thess. 5:26; 1 Pet. 5:14).

"....churches of Christ...." - The Church of Christ uses this verse as a proof text for the validity of their denominational name tag. Note, it is not the church of Christ but the churches, plural!

16:17 (Tit. 1:9; 2:1; Matt. 18:1-4; 11 Jn. 9,10; Tit. 3:10).

16:18 "......their own belly…." - (Phil. 3:19).

" good words and fair speeches..." - (1 Cor. 2:4; Col. 2:4,8; Eph. 5:6; Tit. 1:10; 2 Pet. 2:3). Note that Paul was often bold and crude in his speech, (2 Cor. 10:10; 11:5-7).

16:19 "...simple concerning evil..." - The idea is you don't have to drink or taste raw sewage to know that it is bad for you, just take a good whiff of it!

16:20 "...shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly..." - the event is future and the cross references point to the Second Coming of Christ as the time. (Gen. 3:15; Ps. 68:21,23; 110:5,6; Hab. 3:13); Types are Abimelech, Sisera, Goliath.

16:21 "Timotheus" - Timothy; (1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 1:2).

"Lucius" - Luke the beloved physician, (Acts 13:1).

"Jason" - (Acts 17:5,6,7,9).

"Sosipater" - Sopater of (Acts 20:4).

16:22 "Tertius" - Tertius is the penman just as Baruch was Jeremiah's penman or scribe. Paul speaks under the inspiration of the Spirit of God, (2 Pet. 1:21), and Tertius records it, (2 Tim. 3:16).

16:23 "Gaius" - Paul's host in Corinth, (1 Cor. 1:14; Acts 19:29; 20:4; 3 Jn. 1).

"Erastus" - (Acts 19:22; 2 Tim. 4:20).

"The chamberlain..." - an officer or servant who has charge of chambers; an upper servant of an inn.

16:24 The verse in its entirety is either omitted, bracketed or condemned to the footnotes in the vast majority of the new "Bibles".

16:25 " gospel...." - specifically the revelation of the

Body mystery given to Paul.

There are four gospels in the New Testament:

[1]. The gospel of the earthly kingdom, promised to Israel found in Matthew (The Millennial Reign).

[2]. The gospel of the grace of God as found in (Acts 20 and 1 Cor. 15:1-4); Christ died for our sins.

[3]. The everlasting gospel preached in the Tribulation by an angel, (Rev. 14:6), the gospel of Garner Ted Armstrong, the J.W.'s etc. This is a half truth ... wrong dispensation, remember what Paul said in (Gal. 1:8-10).

[4]. The Special Revelations given to Paul called here "my gospel", i.e., the Body of Christ, predestination, (Rom. 8:29), Christ in you, etc.

...the mystery..." - Romans 7:4; 12:5.

16:26 "...but now is made manifest... " - here especially in this the letter to the Romans.

" the scriptures of the prophets ... of - Paul uses many Old Testament references in developing his thesis The church is in the Old Testament, it just was not revealed.

"...the obedience of faith... " - (Rom. 1:4,5;10:16; Acts 15:9).

16:27 "Amen" - I second the motion!

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