Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. 2 Tim. 2:15

King James AV1611


Second Samuel

Second Samuel was taught by Dr. James Modlish


Chapter Twenty Three



Chapter 23 starts off with David's lineage, his exaltation and anointing from God, as well as proof that he is the Psalmist of Israel.


1:1 "Last words" - Very important words, and probably refer to the last poetic words of David in the song of (chap. 22) through (23:1-7). He probably spoke other things in prose, but nothing more in verse.

"Sweet Psalmist" - pleasant, delightful, sweet, lovely, agreeable, beautiful (physical), singing, sweetly sounding, musical.

1:2 "by me" - Here David claims inspiration from God for the words he spoke (2 Pet. 1:20-21).

1:3 David quotes God - The Rock of Israel (1 Cor. 10:4; Deut. 32:15,18,30-31).

1:4 "As" - refers to Jesus Christ (Light) (Mal. 4; Matt. 13)

"after rain" - Literal rain at the end of the tribulation - early & latter rain in one month!

1:5 "my house" - not a reference to David's house; David knows this. An everlasting covenant was made with David to get it. His house will be steadfast and sure during the millennium and on into eternity when David is on the throne after the great White Throne of judgment.

"this is all my salvation" = King - Christ

"not to grow" = house

God's King is a Jew!!

1:6 "sons of Belial" - Sons of wickedness - worthless (Heb. 6:7-8; 2 Thess. 1:6)

1:7 Probably the reason why the devil is pictured with a forked tail and holding a pitch fork.

Look at the references on Iron - (Gen. 4:22) connected with Cain!

1:8 What follows in the rest of the chapter is the list of "mighty men" that fought with David.

One thing that is clear from these verses is, even though these were all mighty men of valor and strength… it is the LORD that gives the victory, man can not do it in his own strength (vs. 12).

"The Tachmonite" = "thou will make me wise" - descriptive designation of Josheb-basshebeth, one of David's mighty warriors.

Adino = "his ornament"

This great victory probably led to his becoming the "Chief" among captains.

1:9 Eleazar = "God has helped" - the 2nd high priest son of Aaron.

[1]. Son of Mahli (1 Chron. 23:21-22).

[2]. The priest who rebuilt and dedicated the restored walls of Jerusalem in time of Ezra.

[3]. An ancestor of Joseph - (Matt. 1:15).

1:11 Shammah = "astonishment" - son of Agee the Hararite = "mountain dweller"

"lentils" - like kidney beans

1:12 stood… ground - good fighter, but the LORD brings the real victory.

1:14 "hold" - bunker

1:15 Bethlehem is David's hometown where he was raised.

David didn't command his men to get the water, but voices his desire. The soldiers take it as a command and head out to get the water (vs. 16).

1:16 David had a job to do, and is "Christ-like" when he denies himself of the water.

1:17 Water - blood… not literal, but by application.

Forbidden to drink blood in the O.T. (Lev. 17:10-11) - David pours out the water!

1:18 Abishai = "my father is a gift" - grandson of Jesse, nephew of David via his sister Zeruiah, brother of Joab.

Abishai is only mentioned by association, but not listed as "might man" but "honorable" (vs. 19). He joins in a rebellion after David dies.

Ways to be numbered in an army, not just listed are:

[1]. Love the cause.
[2]. Loyalty to the commander.
[3]. Strength - but not just this only.

1:20 Benaiah = "Jehovah has built" - one of David's mighty warriors, son of Jehoiada the chief priest, a Levite, set by David over his bodyguard, later having remained faithful to Solomon during Adonijah's attempt on the crown. He was Joab's successor as commander-in-chief of the army.

"lion like" - in looks

"lion like" - in power

1:24 Asahel = "God-made" - Nephew of David, son of David's sister Zeruiah, and brother of Joab and Abishai; swift of foot he was killed by a spear while chasing Abner when he pursued him in battle and caught him.

Elhanan = "God has been gracious" - He was Dodo's son and a chief of David.

1:25 Shammah = "astonishment"

Elika = "my God rejects"

1:26 Helez = "he has saved" - a descendant of Palti or an inhabitant of Beth-palet.

Ira = "watchful of a city"

1:27 Abiezer = "my father is help"

Mebunnai = "building of Jehovah"

1:28 Zalmon = "shady"

Maharai = "impetuous" - an inhabitant of Netophah in the tribe of Judah.

1:29 Heleb = "milk"

Ittai = "with me" - a Benjamite in David's army

1:30 Benaiah = "Jehovah has built" - the Pirathonite, an Ephraimite, one of David's thirty mighty warriors, and the captain of the eleventh monthly course. He is different than the Benaiah in (vs. 20).

Hiddai = "for the rejoicing of Jehovah" - from Gaash, a mountain of Ephraim where Joshua was buried (Josh. 24:30).

1:31 Abi-albon = "El (God) is my father"

Azmaveth = "strong unto death" - A descendant of Jonathan (1 Chron 8:36; 9:42) - Son of Adiel - (1 Chron. 27:25).

1:32 Eliahba - "God hides"

1:33 Shammah = "astonishment"

Ahiam = "mother's brother"

1:34 Eliphelet = "God is deliverance" - One of David's sons (1 Chron. 3:6).

Eliam = "God of the people" or "God is kinsman" - Grandfather of Sheba. Father of Bath-sheba (2 Sam. 11:3). Called Ammiel (1 Chron. 3:5).

1:35 Hezrai = "enclosed" - (1 Chron. 11:37)

Parari = "gaping" - the Arbite, son of Ezbai. Called NaaraiI in (1 Chron. 11:37).

1:36 Igal = "He redeems" - Also called Joel in (1 Chron. 11:38).

Bani = "built"

1:37 Zelek = "fissure" - the armourbearer of Joab the son of Zeruiah (1 Chron. 11:39).

Nahari = "snorter" - Also an armourbearer of Joab's (1 Chron. 11:39).

1:38 Ira = "watchful of a city" - (1 Chron. 11:40)

Gareb = "scabby" - Also a hill near Jerusalem (Jer 31:39).

1:39 Uriah = "Jehovah is my light"

Hittite - He is not a Jew! He is the Husband of Bathsheba. David commits adultery with her (2 Sam. 11:2-5; 1 Ki 15:5). David has him sent to the front lines and he dies.

A total of 37 valiant men were with David.

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